Terpenes in hemp flower

Terpenes in hemp flower

Introduction

We will explain what are terpens in hemp flower, what are the most known terpens, their qualities and usage.
We will also explain the correalation between terpens and cannabinoids. And for the end, we will tell you more about terpene preservation in vacuum infusion with cannabinoids. 

hemp flower


What is hemp

Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) is a broadly grown plant worldwide. In the last years, the cannabidiol (CBD) and terpenes in hemp have had increasing research interest due to their human health benefits and pharmaceutical values.

There are two types of hemp plants:

  • the fiber type;
  • cannabinoids type hemp plant:  rich in cannabinoids.

Depending on the level of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the plant, the hemp can be further classified into industrial hemp (THC < 0.3%) and marijuana (THC > 0.3%).

What are terpenes

Terpens are  organic, aromatic compounds found in plants in the form of oils. Essentially they are what gives a plant its unique flavour and aroma.

 The most distinct characteristic of terpenes is the smell, which depicts the unique aromatic characteristics of hemp plant and is used by the plant to repel and defense against herbivores, attract pollinators, and inhibit the microbial growth.

There are currently more than 120 terpenes already identified in hemp.  Terpenes are found in lots of fruits, vegetables and herbs and are recognized as safe for human consumption. Terpenes are used in a wide variety of foods and cosmetic products.

 These fragrant oils are responsible for each strain’s unique smell and taste, but they also have a range of physiological and therapeutic effects. Such as anti-anxiety, pain-relief, relaxation promotion, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities.

The difference between cannabinoids and terpenes

What gives hemp its “character” are the hundreds of chemicals it contains. Among them are cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. 

While terpenes don’t get you high, they do influence the effects of other plant compounds such as THC and other cannabinoids.

hemp flower

Most common terpenes found in hemp

 

Most common therapeutic effects and benefits found in terpenes are:

  • antiviral,
  • antidepressant,
  • pain relieving,
  • anticancer,
  • antimicrobal. 

 

Myrcene

One of the most common terpenes found in cannabis is myrcene. Myrcene is also found in hops and is responsible for the peppery, spicy, balsam fragrance in beer. It’s also expressed in lemongrass. Myrcene is a potent analgesic, and has great antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. 

Caryophyllene

The terpene caryophyllene is present in many herbs and spices, including black pepper, basil, and oregano, and cannabis strains with high levels of it deliver a spicy, funky warmth to the nose, similar to cinnamon and cloves. Caryophyllene is an excellent analgesic agent and antispasmic in muscles. 

 Linalool

Linalool refers to two enantiomers of a naturally occurring terpene alcohol found in many flowers and spice plants such as lavender.  Linalool is a colorless oil. Linalool shows sedative, anti-influenza, antimicrobial and neuroprotective effects

Pinene

Pinene is an aromatic compound commonly found in cannabis that smells a lot like a forest of pine trees. But pinene can bring more to a strain’s experience than just flavor. Pinene has memory improvement, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial functions.

Limonene

Limonene is a colorless liquid aliphatic hydrocarbon and is the major component in the oil of citrus fruit peels. Limonene shows good antiviral, anti-bacteria and antidiabetic properties.

Terpinolene

Terpinolene is found in lilacs, nutmeg, cumin, and apples. 

Humulene

The subtle earthy, woody and spicy notes that give hoppy beers their distinct taste and aroma are also partly responsible for giving cannabis its unique scent. Hops and cannabis share a common terpene: humulene. It is very similar to Myrcene.

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol has a fresh mint-like smell and a spicy, cooling taste. It is insoluble in water, but miscible with organic solvents. Eucalyptol makes up 90% of eucalyptus oil.

Terpineol

Terpineols are monocyclic, monoterpene tertiary alcohols that are naturally present in plant species. It has a pleasant odor, similar to lilacs, and is a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and aromatic scents.

Ocimene

Ocimene is the terpene responsible for some of the sweet and herbaceous flavors of certain cannabis strains, and it can also add citrusy and woody undertones. It may also offer a wide array of medicinal properties, as well as uplifting effects.

cannabis terpene chart https://cannacon.org/15-terpenes-cannabis-explained/

How can terpenes affect the effects of cannabis?

Terpenes can enhance or alter psychoactive and medicinal properties of hemp. This phenomenon is know as “entourage effect”.
It can be thought of as working as follows: the sum of all the compounds present in cannabis is greater than the sum of its parts. In other words, a special synergy of the whole plant occurs when cannabinoids and terpenes are consumed together, as opposed to when they are consumed separately.

 

Preserving terpens 

Preserving terpens while using processing technologies to enrich the quality and compound of hemp is of great importance. Achieving high processing efficiency with minimal loss of bioactive compounds is necessary to ensure the quality and safety of hemp plants after harvest.

With vacuum impregnation machine API 3.0, it is possible to have an effect on cannabinoids composition and concentration, without altering the terpenes.  That means that you can infuse hemp flower with our API 3.0 machine and preserve the terpenes.  Without terpenes, cannabinoids would be far less effective, and far less flavorful.

 

New demonstration and teaching space in Czech Republic

New demonstration and teaching space in Czech Republic

Introduction

We are thrilled to announce the opening of our brand new demonstration and teaching space in Brno, Czech Republic.
New working space marks a significant milestone for our company as we continue to expand our presence abroad and enhance our capabilities in Czech Republic. 

new space in Brno

A Hub of Innovation and Expertise

Our new spaces are located in Brno, aproximately 200 km from the capital Prague.
The new facility is a teaching, demonstrating and production hub of our expertise and innovation on the field of enhancing, infusing hemp flower.
To all our new buyers of Vacuum Impregnation Machine API 3.0 we offer complimentary training to show hot to properly and safely use the machine.
To all the interested parties we demonstrate the capabilities and production options of API machine while also offering production service to our partners. 
We can infuse hemp flower for you in smaller or bigger quantites, depending on your needs. 

What service can you expect?

Our visitors have the opportunity to explore the range od services we offer to meet their needs. 
Clients can expect
 personalization, quality and  efficiency of the hemp flower which is enhanced in our facility. Our dedicated team will put maximum effort in finding the perfect solution for the needs of our buyers. We can ensure that our products meet the highest standards of quality.   

A Commitment to Excellence

At Exeat we are commited to achieving excellence in everything we do. From desigining machines and its develoment to offering the best service to exceed our customers’ expectations.
Our new facility in Brno is an important step towards expanding our offer while showcasing our innovative solution in infusing hemp flower.

Visit us!

Whether you are a current client, a prospective partner, or simply curious about our offer, we invite you to visit our new demonstration, teaching  and production facility in Brno.
To schedule a visit or learn more about our facility, please contact us using the form.

 

7 + 8 =

Safety First: Operating Your Vacuum Impregnation Machine API 3.0

Safety First: Operating Your Vacuum Impregnation Machine API 3.0

Machinery safety guide for operating  API 3.0

Introduction

This safety guide is crafted for purchasers and operators of our cutting-edge Vacuum Impregnation Machine API 3.0.
Utilizing butane as a solvent, this machine demands safety protocols due to the nature of butane. 

 

butane molecule

Butane

Butane is highly flammable, colorless, and odorless gas. Because of this safety at working with butane is very important. Butane can be one of the safest fuels to work with when safety practices are used.

While this guide provides critical insights, it is important to complement it with the comprehensive A.P.I. 3.0 instruction manual and adhere to state and local regulations and the ATEX directive 2014/34/EU.

 

Closed Loop Concept of Vacuum Impregnation Machine

A.P.I. 3.0 operates on a closed-loop concept, »loop« indicating the system’s recovery and reuse of the solvent.

The solvent initiates the cycle within a vessel, flows through another with botanical material, and ultimately returns to the original vessel, forming a continuous “loop.”

While this system minimizes environmental impact, a slight butane release during normal operation emphasizes the need for strict safety adherence to prevent any potential accidents.

 

Summary of Safety Requirements

Work place requirements

  • Fire extinguisher 
  • Ventilation. It is mandatory to ensure natural or mechaical ventilation. Ventilation must be done with explosion proof equipment, with regard to ensuring needed fresh air supply, placement of the inlet and outlet canales, releasing of the outlet flow in the environment. Fotka
  • All the source of potential ignition must be located outside of hazard area. That should be located outside potential explosive atmosphere, placed from the ground to prevent exposing to butane. Butane is much heavier as air so in case of the presence it will be on the bottom.
  • Butane detector alerts if there is a presence of butane gas. Butane is a colorless, and odorless gas. This makes is impossible to detect without butane detector.
    Detector must be suitable for industrial use in explosion proof protection.
    Depending on the installation the gas detector will alert about the presence of butane gas. Machine operator can then respond in time and accordingly to the safety measurements.
  • Protection against static electricity discharge. In case there is a static electricity discharge, this can cause a spark that can have sufficient energy to ignite the explosion atmosphere. To prevent static discharge all the equipment must be grounded including the flooring. Personal protection equipment like shoes and clothing should be anti.static.
  • Working place where it could come to an explosive atmosphere has to be marked with EX mark. 
Exeat API-9672 fire extinguisher
Exeat API-9638 ventilation
ex sign
exeat ventilation system

In case of a presence of butane the operator will get visual and audio alarm when Exeat ventilation system is installed. Besides that  the detector will trigger ventilator and in case of dangerous concentrations of gas all the electrical consumers will be disconeted. Leaving only ventilator work on 100%, full capcity.   

Besides that, a presence of only authorized personnel should be ensured. They should not work with open fire, smoke or use tools that overheat or generate sparks.

Flammable chemicals and cleaning agents can be in working place only during cleaning and not while potential explosion atmosphere cold occur (e.g. operating the machine). After use the chemicals and agents must be removed from the hazard area and properly stored. 

Operational requirements

Do not mix butane and air, mixing butane gas and air could lead to dangerous situation.
Prior to operating the machine, the air should be evacuated from tanks for butane gas.
And after the evacuation of air, it has to be ensured that the system is tightly sealed. Leakage test should be performed regularly.

According to the instruction manual it is mandatory to make regularly vacuum and over pressure leakage test of the system.
With vacuum and overpressure leakage test all the leaking spots can be detected.
While machine operating a leakage of the joints or seals can occur.
To minimize the possibility of leakage a totally tight systems should be ensured and tested. Besides overpressure leakage test, the accuracy of the manometers and safety valves is tested.
The leakage test will detect if the manometers and safety valves are malfunctioning (damaged or blocked).

It is prohibited to work with the equipment which is not fully functional.

Butane and other solvents

Do not use other solvent than butane or solvents that are not approved by the manufacturer.
Other solvents have different vapor pressure compared to butane. This could lead to the opening of safety pressure valves, damaging the pressure vessels or damaging the seals due to the chemical compatibility and incompatibility.

 

We have gathered some of the safety guides that ensure safe operation of our vacuum impregnation machine A.P.I 3.0.
As stressed at the beginning, to use our machine safely, instruction manual should be followed besides your state laws and the ATEX directive 2014/34/EU.

What is infused flower?

What is infused flower?

Lets talk about infused flower today.
You probably have heard about it but are maybe wondering what it actually is and how it is made. 

In this blog we will explain:

  • what is it, 
  • why do we infuse hemp flower, 
  • what are the effects, 
  • how we infuse hemp flower,
  • which cannabinoids we use for infusion, 
  • the benefits.
hhc infused flower before and after impregnation

What is infused flower?

Infused flower often called also “caviar” is whole or ground up cannabis or hemp flower infused or impregnated with additional cannabinoid, terpene or both.

Infusion and impregnation process of the hemp flower includes vacuum impregnation, dipping, coating, spraying, sprinkling oil or extracts on cannabis flower.
To bind the two materials, usually heat is used, except with vacuum impregnation.
We will explain more about the benefits of vacuum impregnation further in the article.

Consequently infusion or impregntion helps in creating a powerful new strain of infused cannabis enriched with added elements of choice to the original strain.

Cannabis flowers are often infused with cannabinoids and terpens to give them different ecfects and flavors.

Usually the most used cannabinoids we use to infuse hemp flower are Delta-8, HHC or THC-O (which cannabinoid can be infused depends on the local legislation).

 

Why do we infuse hemp flower?

 

Hemp flower is non intoxicating, so to make it intoxicating we need to infuse or impregnate it with a intoxicating material like cannabinoid or terpene. By doing that, the plant is given a layer of potency.

Besides that, infusion and impregnation  give a hemp flower smell and taste. Hemp flower does not have a smell or taste on its own. With adding cannabionoids or terpenes hemp flower gets a specific aroma and/or effect. For us it is important to add here that long as quality hemp flower is used, there is no need for adding terpenes. 

 

Effects of impregnated flower

 

In the last years the cannnabis industry has been taken by storm with the development.

One big development came with infusion and impregnation.
Infused flower contains more potency than cannabis, due to the infused concentration of terpene laded essential oils and cannabinoids. 

With impregnated flower you do not need to consume as much of the flower as you would normally do to get the same effect. 

 

How to infuse hemp flower?

 

If you are interested in producing impregnated flower, there are several different techniques and machines to do it. 

At Exeat we make Vacuum Impregnation machine API for infusion of hemp flower with Butane as solvent in the vacuum.

Solvent recovery is done on the vacuum impregnation to bind cannabinoids. This method allows for significantly better distribution of the cannabinoid throughout the flower. And not only on the surface. As a result, the flower does not change color, it is not sticky and the distribution of cannabinoids is even.

Impregnation affects the cannabinoids composition and concentration without altering the terpenes.
We are othe only developer and manufacturer of Butane Impregnation System in the market.

Main reasons for using butane as solvent

 

  • Proving excellent solubility in the cannabinoids.
  • Requiring short mixture preparation.
  • Having the highest terpene preservation rate.
  • Needing low investment to start.
  • Needing the least energy to operate.
  • Having the lowest impact on environment.

You can read more about the benefits of butane as solvent in our blog.

Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. [1]

 

Which cannabinoids are used for flower infusion

 

HHC

HHC infused flower is a cannabis flower, usually hemp, and rich in potency of CBD or CBG. HHC is infused in the flower in the form of distillate, isolate or oil

HHC is quite new in the market, but gaining a lot of popularity due to its having milder effects than Delta-8, but still stronger potency than CBD.

The effects of HHC aim to produce comfortable feeling of mental relaxation while still lifting the spirits up by producing an euphoric feeling

HHC is made from hemp-derived CBD and it does not contain any type of THC (unlike Delta 8). So it has a legal advantage compared to Delat-8. 

 

Delta-8

A Delta-8 infused flower is a hemp flower infused with Delta-8 THC distillate (in the form of powder or oil).

Delta-8 is found in hemp plants in really small amount, which makes it hard to extract naturally.
Because of that scientists found a way to create Delta-8 from CBD, so now most of the Delta-8 infused flower found on the market ismade using CBD derived Delta-8.

 

Benefits of Infused Hemp Flower

 

Infused hemp flower combines the inherent benefits of hemp flower, rich in CBD, with the specific advantages of the infused cannabinoid.
Beyond stress reduction, promoting calmness, improving sleep, and pain relief, infusing hemp flower with Delta-8 or HHC enhances concentration, focus, appetite, and sleep patterns.
Additionally, the entourage effect is amplified, as cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids work synergistically for a more balanced and enhanced effect.

In summary, infused flower transforms cannabis into a potent, versatile product with a range of effects and flavors.
The infusion process, techniques, and cannabinoids used contribute to its appeal, providing users with a unique and enhanced cannabis experience.

Whether seeking relaxation, pain relief, or a euphoric lift, infused hemp flower opens the door to diverse possibilities, enhancing the overall cannabis landscape.

References:

[1] E. Radziejewska-KubzdelaR. Biegańska-Marecik, M. Kidoń. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review.  2014 Sep; 15(9): 16577–16610. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200760/.